Average Moon Temperature

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring moon data since July 2009. A very detailed paper [Williams 2017] was written, yet nowhere does it answer the simple question: what is the average temperature of the moon?

[Nikolov & Zeller 2014] intelligently guessed that the mean moon temperature is 197.3 °K, based on techniques and data from [Vasavada 2012].

Today I will be using derived diviner data to calculate the average temperature on the moon. My data has two sources: UCLA and WUSTL. The first has hourly data, and the other has 15 minute data (although many fields are missing). The final result of the two should not differ highly.

I will be using a moon flattening parameter of 1/581.9 from [Araki 2009].

Paste the following into a new file called moontemp.sh:

# source moontemp.sh
# Zoe Phin, 2020/02/12

download1() {
    for l in {000..345..15}; do                   
        echo http://luna1.diviner.ucla.edu/~jpierre/diviner/level4_raster_data/diviner_tbol_snapshot_${l}E.xyz        
    done | wget -ci -
}

download2() {
    base="https://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/lro/lro-l-dlre-4-rdr-v1/lrodlr_1001/data/gcp"
    for l in {0..8}; do let m=l+1; wget -c $base/global_cumul_avg_cyl_${l}0n${m}0n_002.tab; done    
    for l in {9..1}; do let m=l-1; wget -c $base/global_cumul_avg_cyl_${l}0s${m}0s_002.tab; done 
}

avg() { 
    awk '{ f=1/581.9; e=2*f-f^2; r=atan2(0,-1)/180
        T[$1]+=$3; N[$1]+=1; A[$1]+=r/2876.71*(1-e)*cos(r*$1)/(1-e*sin(r*$1)^2)^2
    } END { for (L in T) print L" "T[L]/N[L]" "A[L]}' | sort -n | awk '{
        printf "%6.2f %7.3f %.9f\n", $1, $2, $3; T+=$2*$3
    } END {printf "\nMoonT: %7.3f\n", T}'
}

calc_ucla() {
    awk '{T[$2" "$1]+=$3;N[$2" "$1]+=1} END {for (L in T) print L" "T[L]/N[L]}' *.xyz | avg 
}

calc_wustl() {
    awk -F, '$11>0{T[$2" "$1]+=$11;N[$2" "$1]+=1} END {for (L in T) print L" "T[L]/N[L]}' *.tab | avg          
}

Source the file and download all:

> source moontemp.sh
> download1
> download2

Run UCLA data:

> calc_ucla

-89.75 110.538 0.000019126
-89.25 111.747 0.000057376
-88.75 100.500 0.000095622
-88.25  86.845 0.000133861
-87.75  95.390 0.000172088
-87.25  93.020 0.000210302
-86.75 102.408 0.000248500
-86.25 111.180 0.000286677
-85.75 115.274 0.000324832
-85.25 116.388 0.000362962
-84.75 108.500 0.000401062
-84.25 114.433 0.000439131
-83.75 121.392 0.000477164
-83.25 127.846 0.000515160
-82.75 131.893 0.000553116
-82.25 128.598 0.000591027
-81.75 129.399 0.000628891
-81.25 128.545 0.000666706
-80.75 133.838 0.000704468
-80.25 136.010 0.000742174
-79.75 138.313 0.000779822
-79.25 137.705 0.000817407
-78.75 138.701 0.000854928
-78.25 139.370 0.000892381
-77.75 144.802 0.000929764
-77.25 146.782 0.000967073
-76.75 144.926 0.001004310
-76.25 148.518 0.001041460
-75.75 149.069 0.001078530
-75.25 152.516 0.001115520
-74.75 152.217 0.001152410
-74.25 152.631 0.001189220
-73.75 152.798 0.001225930
-73.25 155.469 0.001262550
-72.75 156.950 0.001299060
-72.25 159.616 0.001335480
-71.75 160.702 0.001371780
-71.25 161.436 0.001407980
-70.75 161.486 0.001444070
-70.25 161.645 0.001480050
-69.75 163.806 0.001515910
-69.25 164.137 0.001551640
-68.75 165.462 0.001587260
-68.25 167.220 0.001622750
-67.75 168.373 0.001658120
-67.25 168.937 0.001693350
-66.75 170.094 0.001728450
-66.25 169.680 0.001763410
-65.75 170.751 0.001798240
-65.25 173.129 0.001832920
-64.75 173.381 0.001867460
-64.25 173.632 0.001901860
-63.75 173.722 0.001936100
-63.25 174.360 0.001970190
-62.75 175.614 0.002004130
-62.25 177.573 0.002037910
-61.75 179.016 0.002071530
-61.25 178.989 0.002104990
-60.75 179.494 0.002138290
-60.25 179.960 0.002171410
-59.75 181.011 0.002204370
-59.25 182.461 0.002237150
-58.75 182.690 0.002269760
-58.25 183.011 0.002302190
-57.75 183.615 0.002334440
-57.25 184.528 0.002366510
-56.75 185.143 0.002398400
-56.25 186.270 0.002430100
-55.75 186.498 0.002461600
-55.25 187.116 0.002492920
-54.75 187.195 0.002524040
-54.25 188.222 0.002554970
-53.75 188.844 0.002585690
-53.25 189.003 0.002616220
-52.75 189.486 0.002646540
-52.25 190.722 0.002676650
-51.75 191.521 0.002706560
-51.25 192.018 0.002736260
-50.75 192.537 0.002765740
-50.25 192.778 0.002795010
-49.75 193.104 0.002824070
-49.25 193.643 0.002852900
-48.75 193.701 0.002881510
-48.25 194.512 0.002909900
-47.75 194.982 0.002938070
-47.25 195.687 0.002966010
-46.75 196.402 0.002993710
-46.25 196.603 0.003021190
-45.75 197.278 0.003048430
-45.25 197.688 0.003075440
-44.75 197.725 0.003102210
-44.25 198.564 0.003128740
-43.75 199.242 0.003155030
-43.25 199.568 0.003181080
-42.75 199.526 0.003206880
-42.25 199.664 0.003232430
-41.75 200.097 0.003257730
-41.25 200.912 0.003282790
-40.75 201.339 0.003307590
-40.25 202.002 0.003332140
-39.75 202.196 0.003356430
-39.25 202.276 0.003380460
-38.75 202.741 0.003404230
-38.25 203.329 0.003427750
-37.75 203.479 0.003451000
-37.25 203.857 0.003473980
-36.75 204.337 0.003496700
-36.25 204.448 0.003519150
-35.75 204.869 0.003541330
-35.25 205.275 0.003563240
-34.75 205.667 0.003584880
-34.25 205.934 0.003606240
-33.75 206.271 0.003627330
-33.25 206.483 0.003648140
-32.75 206.833 0.003668680
-32.25 207.007 0.003688930
-31.75 207.205 0.003708900
-31.25 207.485 0.003728590
-30.75 207.829 0.003747990
-30.25 208.459 0.003767110
-29.75 208.617 0.003785940
-29.25 208.895 0.003804480
-28.75 209.002 0.003822740
-28.25 208.976 0.003840700
-27.75 209.538 0.003858370
-27.25 209.768 0.003875750
-26.75 210.352 0.003892830
-26.25 210.413 0.003909620
-25.75 210.867 0.003926110
-25.25 211.035 0.003942300
-24.75 211.327 0.003958190
-24.25 211.227 0.003973790
-23.75 211.620 0.003989080
-23.25 212.096 0.004004070
-22.75 212.105 0.004018760
-22.25 212.073 0.004033140
-21.75 212.344 0.004047210
-21.25 212.649 0.004060980
-20.75 212.928 0.004074450
-20.25 213.122 0.004087600
-19.75 213.306 0.004100450
-19.25 213.395 0.004112980
-18.75 213.606 0.004125210
-18.25 213.724 0.004137120
-17.75 213.809 0.004148720
-17.25 214.029 0.004160010
-16.75 214.091 0.004170990
-16.25 214.020 0.004181650
-15.75 214.188 0.004191990
-15.25 214.468 0.004202020
-14.75 214.733 0.004211730
-14.25 214.766 0.004221120
-13.75 214.743 0.004230200
-13.25 215.075 0.004238950
-12.75 215.175 0.004247390
-12.25 215.205 0.004255510
-11.75 215.291 0.004263300
-11.25 215.631 0.004270780
-10.75 215.731 0.004277940
-10.25 215.824 0.004284770
 -9.75 215.847 0.004291280
 -9.25 216.019 0.004297470
 -8.75 216.254 0.004303330
 -8.25 216.301 0.004308870
 -7.75 216.361 0.004314090
 -7.25 216.454 0.004318980
 -6.75 216.384 0.004323550
 -6.25 216.570 0.004327790
 -5.75 216.539 0.004331710
 -5.25 216.662 0.004335300
 -4.75 216.713 0.004338570
 -4.25 216.684 0.004341510
 -3.75 216.822 0.004344120
 -3.25 217.028 0.004346410
 -2.75 217.014 0.004348370
 -2.25 217.030 0.004350000
 -1.75 217.149 0.004351310
 -1.25 217.148 0.004352290
 -0.75 217.118 0.004352940
 -0.25 217.131 0.004353270
  0.25 217.131 0.004353270
  0.75 217.240 0.004352940
  1.25 217.215 0.004352290
  1.75 217.240 0.004351310
  2.25 217.256 0.004350000
  2.75 217.107 0.004348370
  3.25 217.113 0.004346410
  3.75 217.040 0.004344120
  4.25 216.983 0.004341510
  4.75 216.931 0.004338570
  5.25 216.871 0.004335300
  5.75 216.831 0.004331710
  6.25 216.701 0.004327790
  6.75 216.656 0.004323550
  7.25 216.717 0.004318980
  7.75 216.789 0.004314090
  8.25 216.628 0.004308870
  8.75 216.441 0.004303330
  9.25 216.380 0.004297470
  9.75 216.352 0.004291280
 10.25 216.287 0.004284770
 10.75 216.194 0.004277940
 11.25 216.113 0.004270780
 11.75 215.904 0.004263300
 12.25 215.766 0.004255510
 12.75 215.754 0.004247390
 13.25 215.668 0.004238950
 13.75 215.504 0.004230200
 14.25 215.449 0.004221120
 14.75 215.361 0.004211730
 15.25 215.048 0.004202020
 15.75 214.742 0.004191990
 16.25 214.674 0.004181650
 16.75 214.590 0.004170990
 17.25 214.502 0.004160010
 17.75 214.531 0.004148720
 18.25 214.349 0.004137120
 18.75 214.273 0.004125210
 19.25 214.167 0.004112980
 19.75 213.801 0.004100450
 20.25 213.556 0.004087600
 20.75 213.123 0.004074450
 21.25 213.120 0.004060980
 21.75 212.942 0.004047210
 22.25 212.636 0.004033140
 22.75 212.513 0.004018760
 23.25 212.112 0.004004070
 23.75 211.977 0.003989080
 24.25 211.909 0.003973790
 24.75 211.629 0.003958190
 25.25 211.476 0.003942300
 25.75 211.027 0.003926110
 26.25 210.862 0.003909620
 26.75 210.510 0.003892830
 27.25 210.405 0.003875750
 27.75 210.150 0.003858370
 28.25 209.810 0.003840700
 28.75 209.589 0.003822740
 29.25 209.128 0.003804480
 29.75 209.121 0.003785940
 30.25 208.887 0.003767110
 30.75 208.520 0.003747990
 31.25 208.118 0.003728590
 31.75 207.895 0.003708900
 32.25 207.487 0.003688930
 32.75 207.224 0.003668680
 33.25 206.852 0.003648140
 33.75 206.578 0.003627330
 34.25 206.238 0.003606240
 34.75 205.897 0.003584880
 35.25 205.553 0.003563240
 35.75 205.236 0.003541330
 36.25 204.862 0.003519150
 36.75 204.382 0.003496700
 37.25 204.062 0.003473980
 37.75 203.723 0.003451000
 38.25 203.273 0.003427750
 38.75 202.940 0.003404230
 39.25 202.578 0.003380460
 39.75 201.890 0.003356430
 40.25 201.613 0.003332140
 40.75 201.259 0.003307590
 41.25 200.688 0.003282790
 41.75 200.437 0.003257730
 42.25 200.291 0.003232430
 42.75 199.786 0.003206880
 43.25 199.203 0.003181080
 43.75 198.752 0.003155030
 44.25 198.529 0.003128740
 44.75 198.064 0.003102210
 45.25 197.678 0.003075440
 45.75 196.640 0.003048430
 46.25 196.054 0.003021190
 46.75 195.885 0.002993710
 47.25 195.866 0.002966010
 47.75 195.388 0.002938070
 48.25 194.087 0.002909900
 48.75 193.621 0.002881510
 49.25 193.414 0.002852900
 49.75 193.144 0.002824070
 50.25 192.485 0.002795010
 50.75 191.851 0.002765740
 51.25 191.477 0.002736260
 51.75 190.991 0.002706560
 52.25 190.311 0.002676650
 52.75 189.843 0.002646540
 53.25 189.517 0.002616220
 53.75 188.474 0.002585690
 54.25 187.944 0.002554970
 54.75 187.390 0.002524040
 55.25 187.308 0.002492920
 55.75 186.351 0.002461600
 56.25 185.324 0.002430100
 56.75 185.153 0.002398400
 57.25 184.717 0.002366510
 57.75 184.195 0.002334440
 58.25 183.457 0.002302190
 58.75 182.550 0.002269760
 59.25 181.897 0.002237150
 59.75 180.882 0.002204370
 60.25 180.425 0.002171410
 60.75 179.733 0.002138290
 61.25 178.569 0.002104990
 61.75 177.431 0.002071530
 62.25 177.406 0.002037910
 62.75 176.133 0.002004130
 63.25 174.992 0.001970190
 63.75 174.263 0.001936100
 64.25 174.045 0.001901860
 64.75 173.420 0.001867460
 65.25 172.958 0.001832920
 65.75 171.647 0.001798240
 66.25 170.659 0.001763410
 66.75 168.890 0.001728450
 67.25 168.258 0.001693350
 67.75 167.299 0.001658120
 68.25 166.353 0.001622750
 68.75 165.771 0.001587260
 69.25 164.839 0.001551640
 69.75 164.604 0.001515910
 70.25 163.729 0.001480050
 70.75 162.392 0.001444070
 71.25 160.312 0.001407980
 71.75 159.079 0.001371780
 72.25 158.767 0.001335480
 72.75 158.000 0.001299060
 73.25 155.641 0.001262550
 73.75 154.728 0.001225930
 74.25 152.357 0.001189220
 74.75 152.286 0.001152410
 75.25 152.446 0.001115520
 75.75 151.423 0.001078530
 76.25 149.418 0.001041460
 76.75 147.758 0.001004310
 77.25 145.345 0.000967073
 77.75 145.334 0.000929764
 78.25 143.694 0.000892381
 78.75 143.395 0.000854928
 79.25 141.426 0.000817407
 79.75 139.245 0.000779822
 80.25 134.396 0.000742174
 80.75 134.638 0.000704468
 81.25 132.923 0.000666706
 81.75 131.281 0.000628891
 82.25 128.608 0.000591027
 82.75 125.593 0.000553116
 83.25 124.031 0.000515160
 83.75 122.858 0.000477164
 84.25 117.375 0.000439131
 84.75 110.464 0.000401062
 85.25 111.891 0.000362962
 85.75 113.233 0.000324832
 86.25 109.398 0.000286677
 86.75 113.166 0.000248500
 87.25 109.039 0.000210302
 87.75  98.730 0.000172088
 88.25  95.876 0.000133861
 88.75  86.159 0.000095622
 89.25  89.165 0.000057376
 89.75 109.777 0.000019126

MoonT: 201.082

First column is latitude, 2nd is average temperature for that latitude +/- 0.5 degrees, and 3rd is the surface area proportion of that latitude +/- 0.5 degrees. 3rd column adds up to 1. MoonT is the area-weighted mean of all latitudes.

Now we do the same for WUSTL data:

> calc_wustl

-89.75 111.192 0.000019126
-89.25 111.660 0.000057376
-88.75 100.290 0.000095622
-88.25  86.871 0.000133861
-87.75  95.084 0.000172088
-87.25  92.831 0.000210302
-86.75 102.601 0.000248500
-86.25 111.243 0.000286677
-85.75 115.981 0.000324832
-85.25 116.198 0.000362962
-84.75 108.497 0.000401062
-84.25 115.692 0.000439131
-83.75 123.413 0.000477164
-83.25 130.003 0.000515160
-82.75 133.344 0.000553116
-82.25 129.484 0.000591027
-81.75 129.702 0.000628891
-81.25 128.091 0.000666706
-80.75 133.846 0.000704468
-80.25 136.168 0.000742174
-79.75 138.256 0.000779822
-79.25 137.502 0.000817407
-78.75 138.429 0.000854928
-78.25 138.730 0.000892381
-77.75 143.939 0.000929764
-77.25 145.831 0.000967073
-76.75 144.331 0.001004310
-76.25 147.966 0.001041460
-75.75 148.465 0.001078530
-75.25 152.140 0.001115520
-74.75 151.776 0.001152410
-74.25 152.297 0.001189220
-73.75 152.585 0.001225930
-73.25 155.127 0.001262550
-72.75 156.952 0.001299060
-72.25 159.367 0.001335480
-71.75 160.486 0.001371780
-71.25 161.450 0.001407980
-70.75 161.246 0.001444070
-70.25 161.774 0.001480050
-69.75 163.612 0.001515910
-69.25 163.996 0.001551640
-68.75 165.422 0.001587260
-68.25 167.346 0.001622750
-67.75 168.544 0.001658120
-67.25 169.355 0.001693350
-66.75 170.667 0.001728450
-66.25 170.258 0.001763410
-65.75 171.491 0.001798240
-65.25 174.150 0.001832920
-64.75 174.220 0.001867460
-64.25 174.762 0.001901860
-63.75 174.905 0.001936100
-63.25 175.696 0.001970190
-62.75 177.189 0.002004130
-62.25 179.499 0.002037910
-61.75 180.929 0.002071530
-61.25 181.092 0.002104990
-60.75 181.633 0.002138290
-60.25 182.008 0.002171410
-59.75 183.258 0.002204370
-59.25 184.545 0.002237150
-58.75 184.681 0.002269760
-58.25 184.960 0.002302190
-57.75 185.818 0.002334440
-57.25 187.257 0.002366510
-56.75 187.572 0.002398400
-56.25 188.767 0.002430100
-55.75 188.732 0.002461600
-55.25 189.269 0.002492920
-54.75 189.528 0.002524040
-54.25 190.825 0.002554970
-53.75 191.269 0.002585690
-53.25 191.363 0.002616220
-52.75 191.864 0.002646540
-52.25 193.107 0.002676650
-51.75 194.078 0.002706560
-51.25 194.501 0.002736260
-50.75 194.990 0.002765740
-50.25 195.240 0.002795010
-49.75 195.366 0.002824070
-49.25 196.196 0.002852900
-48.75 196.037 0.002881510
-48.25 196.876 0.002909900
-47.75 197.586 0.002938070
-47.25 198.416 0.002966010
-46.75 199.182 0.002993710
-46.25 199.469 0.003021190
-45.75 199.996 0.003048430
-45.25 200.541 0.003075440
-44.75 200.536 0.003102210
-44.25 201.071 0.003128740
-43.75 201.588 0.003155030
-43.25 201.680 0.003181080
-42.75 201.665 0.003206880
-42.25 201.937 0.003232430
-41.75 202.546 0.003257730
-41.25 203.719 0.003282790
-40.75 204.205 0.003307590
-40.25 204.736 0.003332140
-39.75 204.970 0.003356430
-39.25 204.972 0.003380460
-38.75 205.850 0.003404230
-38.25 206.663 0.003427750
-37.75 206.584 0.003451000
-37.25 207.040 0.003473980
-36.75 207.439 0.003496700
-36.25 207.656 0.003519150
-35.75 208.246 0.003541330
-35.25 208.680 0.003563240
-34.75 209.273 0.003584880
-34.25 209.473 0.003606240
-33.75 209.612 0.003627330
-33.25 209.509 0.003648140
-32.75 209.973 0.003668680
-32.25 209.766 0.003688930
-31.75 210.415 0.003708900
-31.25 211.005 0.003728590
-30.75 211.611 0.003747990
-30.25 212.332 0.003767110
-29.75 212.587 0.003785940
-29.25 212.645 0.003804480
-28.75 212.918 0.003822740
-28.25 213.020 0.003840700
-27.75 213.443 0.003858370
-27.25 213.599 0.003875750
-26.75 214.268 0.003892830
-26.25 214.016 0.003909620
-25.75 214.252 0.003926110
-25.25 214.595 0.003942300
-24.75 215.184 0.003958190
-24.25 214.881 0.003973790
-23.75 215.254 0.003989080
-23.25 215.482 0.004004070
-22.75 214.994 0.004018760
-22.25 215.303 0.004033140
-21.75 215.699 0.004047210
-21.25 215.885 0.004060980
-20.75 216.148 0.004074450
-20.25 216.335 0.004087600
-19.75 215.992 0.004100450
-19.25 216.290 0.004112980
-18.75 216.212 0.004125210
-18.25 216.517 0.004137120
-17.75 216.406 0.004148720
-17.25 216.614 0.004160010
-16.75 216.567 0.004170990
-16.25 216.449 0.004181650
-15.75 216.859 0.004191990
-15.25 217.096 0.004202020
-14.75 217.008 0.004211730
-14.25 216.947 0.004221120
-13.75 216.897 0.004230200
-13.25 216.589 0.004238950
-12.75 216.806 0.004247390
-12.25 216.571 0.004255510
-11.75 216.447 0.004263300
-11.25 216.478 0.004270780
-10.75 216.249 0.004277940
-10.25 216.115 0.004284770
 -9.75 216.419 0.004291280
 -9.25 216.589 0.004297470
 -8.75 216.901 0.004303330
 -8.25 216.549 0.004308870
 -7.75 216.389 0.004314090
 -7.25 216.261 0.004318980
 -6.75 216.297 0.004323550
 -6.25 216.072 0.004327790
 -5.75 216.128 0.004331710
 -5.25 215.923 0.004335300
 -4.75 215.805 0.004338570
 -4.25 215.933 0.004341510
 -3.75 216.061 0.004344120
 -3.25 216.258 0.004346410
 -2.75 216.291 0.004348370
 -2.25 215.959 0.004350000
 -1.75 215.765 0.004351310
 -1.25 215.792 0.004352290
 -0.75 215.759 0.004352940
 -0.25 215.570 0.004353270
  0.25 215.419 0.004353270
  0.75 215.150 0.004352940
  1.25 215.066 0.004352290
  1.75 214.871 0.004351310
  2.25 214.831 0.004350000
  2.75 214.809 0.004348370
  3.25 214.578 0.004346410
  3.75 214.599 0.004344120
  4.25 214.262 0.004341510
  4.75 213.976 0.004338570
  5.25 213.812 0.004335300
  5.75 213.690 0.004331710
  6.25 213.126 0.004327790
  6.75 212.800 0.004323550
  7.25 212.827 0.004318980
  7.75 212.963 0.004314090
  8.25 212.537 0.004308870
  8.75 212.270 0.004303330
  9.25 211.869 0.004297470
  9.75 211.598 0.004291280
 10.25 211.233 0.004284770
 10.75 211.009 0.004277940
 11.25 210.931 0.004270780
 11.75 210.785 0.004263300
 12.25 210.905 0.004255510
 12.75 210.935 0.004247390
 13.25 210.643 0.004238950
 13.75 210.358 0.004230200
 14.25 210.152 0.004221120
 14.75 209.363 0.004211730
 15.25 208.773 0.004202020
 15.75 208.371 0.004191990
 16.25 208.195 0.004181650
 16.75 208.633 0.004170990
 17.25 208.545 0.004160010
 17.75 208.499 0.004148720
 18.25 208.173 0.004137120
 18.75 208.080 0.004125210
 19.25 207.456 0.004112980
 19.75 207.185 0.004100450
 20.25 206.943 0.004087600
 20.75 206.466 0.004074450
 21.25 206.488 0.004060980
 21.75 206.295 0.004047210
 22.25 205.953 0.004033140
 22.75 205.895 0.004018760
 23.25 205.286 0.004004070
 23.75 205.249 0.003989080
 24.25 204.794 0.003973790
 24.75 204.654 0.003958190
 25.25 204.500 0.003942300
 25.75 203.869 0.003926110
 26.25 203.385 0.003909620
 26.75 203.094 0.003892830
 27.25 203.295 0.003875750
 27.75 203.300 0.003858370
 28.25 203.156 0.003840700
 28.75 202.549 0.003822740
 29.25 202.184 0.003804480
 29.75 201.900 0.003785940
 30.25 201.414 0.003767110
 30.75 201.026 0.003747990
 31.25 200.339 0.003728590
 31.75 200.075 0.003708900
 32.25 199.678 0.003688930
 32.75 199.134 0.003668680
 33.25 199.242 0.003648140
 33.75 198.870 0.003627330
 34.25 198.542 0.003606240
 34.75 197.986 0.003584880
 35.25 197.710 0.003563240
 35.75 197.292 0.003541330
 36.25 196.695 0.003519150
 36.75 196.182 0.003496700
 37.25 195.985 0.003473980
 37.75 195.376 0.003451000
 38.25 195.215 0.003427750
 38.75 194.945 0.003404230
 39.25 194.702 0.003380460
 39.75 194.408 0.003356430
 40.25 194.084 0.003332140
 40.75 193.454 0.003307590
 41.25 192.829 0.003282790
 41.75 192.537 0.003257730
 42.25 192.213 0.003232430
 42.75 191.841 0.003206880
 43.25 191.122 0.003181080
 43.75 190.537 0.003155030
 44.25 190.296 0.003128740
 44.75 190.286 0.003102210
 45.25 189.988 0.003075440
 45.75 189.450 0.003048430
 46.25 188.734 0.003021190
 46.75 188.502 0.002993710
 47.25 188.434 0.002966010
 47.75 187.969 0.002938070
 48.25 186.444 0.002909900
 48.75 186.200 0.002881510
 49.25 186.058 0.002852900
 49.75 185.592 0.002824070
 50.25 185.071 0.002795010
 50.75 184.626 0.002765740
 51.25 184.254 0.002736260
 51.75 184.047 0.002706560
 52.25 183.452 0.002676650
 52.75 182.817 0.002646540
 53.25 182.411 0.002616220
 53.75 181.747 0.002585690
 54.25 181.146 0.002554970
 54.75 180.724 0.002524040
 55.25 180.913 0.002492920
 55.75 180.215 0.002461600
 56.25 179.626 0.002430100
 56.75 179.553 0.002398400
 57.25 178.901 0.002366510
 57.75 178.362 0.002334440
 58.25 177.475 0.002302190
 58.75 176.981 0.002269760
 59.25 176.461 0.002237150
 59.75 176.088 0.002204370
 60.25 175.993 0.002171410
 60.75 175.367 0.002138290
 61.25 174.353 0.002104990
 61.75 173.586 0.002071530
 62.25 173.660 0.002037910
 62.75 172.696 0.002004130
 63.25 171.946 0.001970190
 63.75 171.428 0.001936100
 64.25 171.687 0.001901860
 64.75 171.416 0.001867460
 65.25 171.483 0.001832920
 65.75 170.581 0.001798240
 66.25 169.589 0.001763410
 66.75 168.143 0.001728450
 67.25 167.852 0.001693350
 67.75 167.419 0.001658120
 68.25 166.735 0.001622750
 68.75 166.388 0.001587260
 69.25 165.532 0.001551640
 69.75 165.550 0.001515910
 70.25 164.822 0.001480050
 70.75 163.915 0.001444070
 71.25 162.093 0.001407980
 71.75 161.380 0.001371780
 72.25 161.240 0.001335480
 72.75 160.716 0.001299060
 73.25 158.450 0.001262550
 73.75 157.668 0.001225930
 74.25 155.624 0.001189220
 74.75 155.580 0.001152410
 75.25 156.122 0.001115520
 75.75 155.565 0.001078530
 76.25 154.319 0.001041460
 76.75 153.155 0.001004310
 77.25 150.936 0.000967073
 77.75 151.168 0.000929764
 78.25 149.753 0.000892381
 78.75 148.941 0.000854928
 79.25 146.770 0.000817407
 79.75 143.766 0.000779822
 80.25 138.198 0.000742174
 80.75 137.521 0.000704468
 81.25 134.825 0.000666706
 81.75 132.612 0.000628891
 82.25 129.110 0.000591027
 82.75 124.871 0.000553116
 83.25 122.797 0.000515160
 83.75 121.661 0.000477164
 84.25 116.752 0.000439131
 84.75 110.306 0.000401062
 85.25 111.987 0.000362962
 85.75 113.071 0.000324832
 86.25 109.478 0.000286677
 86.75 113.206 0.000248500
 87.25 108.943 0.000210302
 87.75  98.809 0.000172088
 88.25  96.164 0.000133861
 88.75  86.252 0.000095622
 89.25  89.380 0.000057376
 89.75 110.643 0.000019126

MoonT: 199.386

It’s hard to choose which data is better. The first is complete hourly data, while the latter is 15 minute data but with many missing pieces.

The results are 201.086 °K and 199.386 °K.

The average of the two results is 200.2 °K, and I will leave it at that.

Answer = 200.2 °K

Enjoy 🙂 -Zoe

Update

I was curious about Equations 12 and 13 of [Nikolov & Zeller 2014], so I wrote a little bit more code into moontemp.sh above:

eq12_13() {
    seq 0.05 0.1 89.95 | awk '{ R=atan2(0,-1)/180; L=R*$1
        T=216.313+9.919*L-119.814*L^2+307.116*L^3-466.244*L^4+321.317*L^5-84.973*L^6
        AVG+=T*cos(L)*0.1*R
    } END { printf "MoonT: %7.3f\n", AVG }'
}

I used 216.313 °K as my average equatorial temperature, which I got by averaging UCLA & WUSTL data between -0.25 and 0.25 latitude.

> . moontemp.sh; eq12_13

MoonT: 200.777

The result is only off by half a degree from our answer. This formula is pretty good.

25 thoughts on “Average Moon Temperature

    1. Good question. That could only be figured out from the raw data. That data is too numerous for a laptop (>300MB per 10 minutes), and honestly I haven’t figured out how to combine it properly – so I use derived data from UCLA and WUSTL, who I assume figured it out properly. Unfortunately there is no time component in the derived product, only a long-term average.

      Like

    2. My equitorial T is over 215K, while Vasavada’s is 213K. A ~decade has passed. Yeah, I think the moon did warm.

      Climate alarmists will take this as proof that carbon emissions are driving temperatures as far as the moon.

      Like

  1. Thanks, Zoe. Excellent article on the subject here.

    The problem with your calculation is that for your average temperature of ~ 200K, the equivalent Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is only about 90 W/m2. But we know that the moon’s albedo is on the order of 0.11 – 0.12, meaning that the moon is absorbing some 300 W/m2. It cannot be doing that and only radiate 90 W/m2.

    The problem, of course, is that radiation varies as T^4. So you need to first convert gridcell temperatures to the equivalent radiation, average the radiation, and then convert back to temperature.

    When you do that, you’ll find that the average temperature of the moon is about 270K.

    Best regards,

    w.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Willis,
      Your first link is my first link. Do you read my articles before you react?

      So what you’re saying is that GISS, HadCRUT, Berekeley, etc. need to first convert all their temperatures to radiation, average that, and then acquire average global temperature?

      Have you told them this? What did they say?

      Like

      1. Thanks, Zoe. I read the article but I didn’t follow all of the links. So sue me.

        As to averaging the temperature, or talking to HadCRUT et al., you can do that if you’re only interested in relative temperature and you make no attempt to relate it to radiation.

        For the difference, you might enjoy my post here.

        Best regards,

        w.

        Like

        1. The thing is that the basic core model of the global warming fraud was always a flat earth model. It was as if there was a pancake planet, exactly twice as far from the sun as earth is, where it was noon all the time, and the only heat transfer that anyone worried about was radiation. This was the watts per square metre only story that dominated in the early days. Of course the frauds have gotten a bit more sophisticated over time. But their evolution has been to tack add-ons to a fundamentally flawed model.

          So if anyone looks like they have been influenced by this flat earth thinking Willis, expect a strong reaction in some circles.

          Like

        2. I’m creating a new camp.

          Here are the camps in climate science:

          Q: Why is the surface temperature what it is?

          A:
          1) Solar alone (Postma)
          2) Solar to the core via entropy top-down “heat creep” (Doug Cotton)
          3) Solar + Gravitational Compression (Nikolov & Zeller)
          4) Solar + GHGs (Mainstream: Alarmists + Lukewarmers)
          5) Solar + Geothermal (I, Zoe)

          Like

        3. Zoe Phin February 14, 2020 at 12:50 am

          5) Solar + Geothermal (I, Zoe)

          I’m also convinced that the very high temperatures on Earth are caused by the sun heating the shallow surface layer of our geothermally heated oceans to the observed temperatures.
          Although the geothermal fluxes are very low, the temperature of our crust and oceans is almost completely from geothermal origin.
          The atmosphere is obviously NOT heating the oceans and the crust 😉
          see https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2014/03/03/ben-wouters-influence-of-geothermal-heat-on-past-and-present-climate/

          Interested to discuss this approach.

          Liked by 1 person

  2. Raised on Arthur C. Clarke stories, I was scanning the temps for frost on one side of the Terminator (not Ahnilt) and crackling heat on the other. Everything seemed way too hot until I got to the bottom and the spoiler said the temps were in ºK. Ooops. Nevermind. This is some really nice work, BTW.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Fascinating discussion, I’m not a scientist and I can’t pretend to understand the math. I do enjoy people using their intellect to rationally discuss ideas. It’s refreshing.
    #3 in your list best describes where I stand. Cause and effect rules supreme over any theoretical model. Also, all heat is “friction”. The spot where heat is occurring at its highest temperature, is also the source of the friction/reaction. Eliminate the variables, what is left must be the answer.
    For example, the south pole experiences six months no Solar input… One variable eliminated. When darkness occurs on the moon or mercury, temperatures quickly plummet to near -300°F. The south pole, in winter, averages -70°F at a height of 10,000 feet. Where does the heat come from to emit IR radiation for six months without a source? Even Mars gets 2x colder than this at night. (Earth heat through 3 miles of ice doesn’t seem to be a factor)
    That just leaves atmospheric pressure, depending on altitude, as the frictional heat source. The greatest amount of heat will occur at the bottom of the air column. The ground.
    Now compare the south pole, to the north pole which experiences the identical circumstances except for one factor, it is at sea level. More atmospheric pressure = higher temperatures then the south pole. The earth heat, in the form of warm liquid Arctic water, is beneath the average thickness of 9 feet of ice. It does not substantially raise the air temperature let alone melt the ice. Even so, it is much warmer than the south pole.
    Now plug-in the next conundrum. Watts per meter squared… The south pole, during the summer, experiences 24 hour sunlight for months! Under the standard model, it should be the hottest place on earth… It’s summertime average is -40°F. That’s only an increase of 30°, unimaginable! Perhaps the sun doesn’t have as much influence as we think. Real “Cause & Affect”, not a theory or a model but actual physical measurements.
    The chinook winds affect… Doesn’t anyone find it curious that the Chinook winds holds the Guinness book of world records for the fastest/hottest temperature fluctuations and yet does not accur in any global warming science models? Even in Antarctica, heavy cold air flows off the continent from 10,000 feet down to sea level heating 50 to 60° as the air compresses. Still cold enough to freeze science vessels in the ice.
    Next conundrum, Mount Everest is closer to the sun receiving more of its fair share of ionizing radiation and sunlight. It’s not hot. Low atmospheric pressure.
    Death Valley, on the other hand, is below sea level having higher atmospheric pressure and is consistently warmer than the surrounding desert. Even in the winter time or cloudy conditions.
    The evidence is clear and reproducible at any location or climate on earth. For every thousand feet you climb out of our atmosphere, you lose 5.4°F (depending on humidity)
    The best part is you can reproduce this Air pressure = heat experiment on every planet in the solar system. (Except for the ones without an atmosphere!) The thicker the atmosphere, the greater the heat. All of the gas giants, for example, are hotter under their atmosphere then the surface of the sun (photosphere).

    Another example I just remembered, storm systems. A low pressure cyclone occurs because matter cannot exist in the same space. Lighter/ more buoyant water vapor pushes air molecules out, resulting in a drop in air pressure, colder temperatures. Lower air pressure always is associated with lower temperatures. Same with the eye of a hurricane.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Zoe,
    My result for the Moon was 200.3K, very close to your result!

    However this may be the wrong average.
    Though the simple arithmetic average is 200.3K the result calculated from (average(T^4))^0.25 was 270K.
    The temperature of 270K is also what is predicted using an energy balance based on 1360W/m2 and a Bond albedo of 0.11.

    The difference between the simple average and (average(T^4))^0.25 appears to be greatly reduced by an atmosphere, Mars came out as 205 / 208K respectively and the Earth came out as 287.8 / 288.6K respectively.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. “The temperature of 270K is also what is predicted using an energy balance based on 1360W/m2 and a Bond albedo of 0.11.”

      And the moon is the same size as the sun from Earth’s POV. Coincidence.

      Physically placing thermometers on every square meter of the moon would record ~200K. That’s the only measure that counts. Average radiation converted to a temperature is not an experience a human or thermometer would, well, experience.

      Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create your website at WordPress.com
Get started
%d bloggers like this: